Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Food fortification
  • Soybeans
  • Nutritional value of soybeans
  • Utilization of soybeans
  • Practical Demonstration of traditional delicacy with soybeans
  • Conclusion
  • Reference


1.0       Introduction

Protein- energy malnutrition result from food insufficiency as well as from poor social and economic conditions. Malnutrition originates from a cellular difference between nutrient/energy supply and the body’s demand to ensure growth maintenance. Dietary energy and  protein deficiencies usually occur together, although one sometimes outweighs the other and if severe enough, may lead to the clinical syndrome of kwashiorkor (predominant protein deficiency) or marasmus (mainly energy deficiency) (O.E. Adelakum et al.,: 2013).

 (I) Image of participants

Food fortification is broadly aimed to allow all people to obtain all the energy, macro-and micronutrients they need to enjoy a healthy and productive life from their diet. In many developing nations including Africa, cereal based foods are widely utilized as food and as dietary staples for adults and weaning foods for infants. Food fortification is one important step in making sure populations gain a balanced diet. It helps to fill micronutrient gaps where populations struggle to access nutritious foods, which is especially important as population grow, live in more urban areas, and consume more processed foods rather than freshly grown foods.

Malnutrition among farmers and fishfolks is significant due to financial constraint in view of this, WIAD at the department of agriculture found it necessary to train the farmers on how to fortify their traditional delicacies with soybeans to reduce the cost of animal protein and improve balance diet consumption.

The main objective of this training is to address malnutrition and to cut down cost of purchase on animal protein.

The resource person trained the participants on the following topics.

2.0       Soybeans

Legumes are one of the world’s most important sources of food supply especially in the developing countries in terms of food, energy as well as nutrients. It has been recognized as an important source of protein and in some cases oil. As a legume, soybeans are an important global crop that provides oil and protein for users. It is the richest sources of protein among the plant foods.

The seeds vary in shape and colour depending on the cultivar. In shape, they can be spherical to flatten while the colour varies from white, yellow and brown to black. It chemical composition on an average dry matter basis is about 40% of protein and 20%of oil (O.E. Adelakum et al.,: 2013).

3.0       Nutritional value of soybeans

Soybean contains all the essential amino acids, similar to those found in meat. Soybean also contains phospholipids, vitamins and minerals. Furthermore, it is high in fiber and phytoestrogens, low in saturated fat, cholesterol and lactose free and a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants.

4.0       Utilization of soybeans

Soybeans can be processed into soy milk, soy curds, and cheese. It is also used to produce soy sauce use comprehensively in cooking and as a sauce. Soybean are also used for candies and ice cream and soybean flour which could be mixed with wheat flour to produce a wide variety of baked goods such as bread and biscuits. Soybean oil is used for edible purposes, particularly as a cooking, and salad oil and for manufacture of margarine.

5.0       Practical Demonstration of traditional delicacy with soybeans

The participants were taken through the three food groups which are Body Building Foods (animal and bean products), Energy Foods (starchy foods and sugars) and Protective Foods (fruits and vegetables) and were advised to consume fruits daily.

The farmers were engaged in cooking various types of foods which were fortified with soybeans. The following foods were fortified with soybean;

  • Banku
  • Palava sauce
  • Okro stew
  • Gravy

(ii) resource persons educating the participants

The participants were also taught how to prepare soy milk. They were advised to incorporate soy beans in their meals in order to attain a balanced diet.

6.0       Conclusion

The training was successful, well attended and participated. Farmers really interacted and learnt a lot from the training. The total number of participants was Seven-five (75) made up of Twenty-two (22) males and Fifty-five (55) females.

Soy beans can be promoted because of its positive effect on nutritional enhancement on different fortified food products.


  1. E. Adelakum, K.G. Duodu, E. Buys and B.F. Olanipekun., 2013. Potential Use of Soybean Flour (Glycine max) in Food Fortification.
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