About Ledzokuku Municipal Assembly

1.3.1 Physical and Natural Environment
Boundary and Administrative Area
The total land area of LEKMA is estimated at 50 square kilometers. The municipality is bounded to the south by the Gulf of Guinea (from the Kpeshie Lagoon to the Sakumono Junction). It continues along the railway line through Sakumono to the ‘on the run’ traffic light. It is bounded to the East by the Spintex Road towards the Coca Cola Roundabout. This turns to the left and right by Johnson Wax. To the north of the boundary is the Motorway through to the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange and moves south along the boundaries of the Ashitey Akomfra Electoral area and towards the estuary of the Kpeshie lagoon.

Figure 1: Map of LEKMAThe map shows that the municipality is wedged between the Accra Metropolitan Assembly on the west and Tema Metropolitan Assembly on the East. In view of the strategic location of the Municipality, as indicated in the map, between the national capital, Accra and Tema, the second largest city in the Greater Accra Region, LEKMA is well placed to attract large investment concerns for its economic development due to the prevailing economic climate in the region.The Municipality is also located in the flood plain of three rivers flowing from the Akawpim Mountains
By its location between Tema and Accra there is a high probability that it would be under the influence of policies of these adjoining districts as well as the high impact on population movement .
Having a large stretch of coast line fishing and its related activities is the major occupation in the Municipality and tourism potential cannot be ruled out
There is the possibility that the Municipality could provide the much needed residential accommodation for workers in the national capital and the port city of Tema


LEKMA lies in the Savannah zone which experiences a double maxima rainy season pattern. The average annual rainfall is about 730mm, which falls primarily during the two rainy seasons. The first season begins in May and ends in mid-July while the second season begins in mid-August and ends in October. Rainfall is usually characterized by quick and short intensive storms and causes flooding in areas of poor drainage. This situation is further aggravated by the effects of climate change where the rain fall pattern has become unpredictable and its impact on flood management.

Wind speeds are sometimes exceptional strong and roof rip offs are very predominantly in the district
The annual temperature figures are also relatively stable with very little variation in annual temperature figures. August, the coolest month, usually comes with a mean temperature of 24.7°c while the hottest period is found in March with a mean of 28°c. With an annual average of 26.8°c in temperature and the proximity of the area to the equator, the daylight hours are practically uniform during the year. Relative humidity in the area is generally high varying from 65% in the mid-afternoon to 95% at night. The differentials in temperatures identified should inform architectural designs of buildings to ensure convenience in building designs.


The vegetation of the municipality was believed to have been covered by dense forest but currently only a few remnant trees have survived due to a multiplicity of factors relating to rapid urbanization and limited enforcement of laws protecting the terrestrial vegetation. The situation is further worsened by the effect of climate change. The three key vegetation zones are made up of shrub lands, grassland and coastal lands. This support only limited rearing of livestock. The grasses comprise a combination of species found in the undergrowth of forests which are usually short, and rarely grow beyond one meters. There is however a small green belt near the Teshie Coastal area which is seriously under threat of encroachment and this calls for very proactive measures to protect such areas not only to conserve coastal ecosystems but also to enhance the tourism potentials in such areas.

Heat is a very common phenomenon in the Municipality and temperature variations is an issue that needs to be considered

Part of Green Belt                                     Encroahment of Part of Green Belt

1.3.2 Culture
The Origin of the Indigenous People

The indigenous people of the Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality are a section of the Ga-speaking people of Ghana who essentially occupy the stretch from Nyanyano in the west of the Accra Metropolis to Kpone in the East of Tema along the coast of Ghana. On the south of this area is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by Akwapin Stool Lands. Through oral tradition we are informed that the Ga-speaking people made up of the people of Ga Mashie, Osu, La, Teshie, Nungua and Tema migrated originally from Israel and passed through many lands including Nigeria and Togo before finally settling in Ghana. They also came in various groups and arrived on the shores of this land at different times.

The Homowo Festival
Homowo (hooting at hunger) is one of the colourful festivals celebrated by the people of the Ga state which includes Teshie and Nungua. It is celebrated from August to September and characterized by rituals such as the sprinkling of ‘Kpokpoi’ (the festival fish) to the gods and ancestors for spiritual protection, procession of twins through the principal streets, traditional drumming and dancing and general merry making. A month before the celebration, there is a ban on noisemaking. A climax of the festival is that from 12 noon to 6:00pm any woman, no matter the status, should accept a hug from a man on the festival street.
The Kpledzo Festival
Apart from Homowo, the people of Nungua also celebrate the Kpledzo festival which is an annual feast festival of the people of Nungua and takes place on the first Sunday in June. The first activity is the spiritual and physical cleansing of the town in response to the expected visitation of the spirits of the ancestors who would invite the town during the festival. Other aspects of the festival include the rite of Awitsemo (summoning of the gods) as well as the ‘lifting up’ of the Kple drums in preparation of the kple dance which is essentially a series of dances to the end of the festival by the woyei (fetish priestesses). A day during the festival is also spent by the people of the town and their visitors from the villages rejoicing because they have been fortunate to observe another Kpledzo Festival. The youth adorn themselves with green leaves (chiefly of the Nyanya Vine) and there are clowning processions in ridiculous fancy dresses through the streets of the town.
Rites of Passage
Apart from festivals the Gas have important rites of passage which are shown below.
Naming of children
After the child is born, it is ‘kept like an egg’ indoors for seven days. It is then held to have survived seven dangers, and is worthy to be called a person. Very early in the morning of the eighth day (about four o’clock), the naming ceremony (out-dooring ceremony) is carried out in the father’s house to ensure the seal of respectable paternity that would be beneficial to the child. During the process, an older person from the father’s family is chosen, if the child is a girl a woman is chosen and if a boy a man is chosen and the chosen one should be of a good character and offers a traditional prayer and takes the child up in his/her arms and lifts it up three times. He then calls the child by name and makes a special speech concerning what the child should expect in this world and for it to be able to discern between good and evil and also to thread the good path always in life. After this the child is laid naked on the floor (or on a special stone in some families). Then the godfather (or mother) flinks water from a calabash three times on the ceiling so that it trickles down on the child like rain. Then the child as it lies on the ground is blessed. He/ she then strikes the baby gently with the foot and admonishes it to take after his/her good character and cautioning the child to avoid his/her bad points.
It is interesting to note that under Ga culture, the naming of the child is done chronologically and is also unique to each area ie Teshie and Nungua (as in other Ga States). All the various areas therefore have their own set of names and the advantage hear is that the mere mention of a person’s name assigns that person to the family, clan and even the chronological level of the person with respect to his siblings.

Puberty Rites

The puberty rite commonly practiced in the area is known as otofo. Behind this rite is the idea that it is blasphemous and dangerous for a woman to conceive a child before the rites have been performed. Under the otofo custom, girls at the stage of puberty are kept aside for a period varying from six weeks to six months. During this time they eat no fermented food but food out of the earth such as root vegetables and groundnuts. These foods are supplied plentifully to fatten the girls and they are supposed to be visited only by their tutors who are old women who teach them not only the secrets of wifely behavior but the special songs and dances which they would perform publicly when they are released. The tutors also act as confessors where each girl is encouraged to make a clean breast of any moral issue concerning them.

At the end of the training, there are a variety of celebrations which include a day’s parade of the town while they dance gracefully to the admiration of onlookers distributing corn wine and a special food called kunme. This is followed by another ceremony of being taught how to grind corn by old women in a clay bed decorated with sea shells followed by another ceremony at the beach of selecting little nodules of gravel.

One of the foremost beliefs of the indigenes is that of reincarnation. The dead can be born again only in their own families, a grandfather as a grandson or a dead first child as a second child. Childlessness is therefore considered an appalling curse as it blocks the whole line of reincarnation. The belief that the ancestors always have a watchful eye over the living also ensures that people perform rites concerning the dead diligently to avoid the wrath of the ancestors.

Before Europeans interference in Ga culture, people were buried in their houses but in recent times coffins are commonly used and the dead sent to cemeteries for burial. In recent times however there are innovations on unique designs of coffins which give an idea about of the occupation of the dead person. In other words, a fisherman may have his coffin designed in the form of a canoe or a dead driver’s coffin may be in the form of a truck. These are options that are not rigidly enforced but depend on the preference of the family. Visitors to the funeral also give the dead money to pay for their passage to the other side and also to pay for the cure of the sickness of which he/she died.
Currently these burial activities where royals are concerned are a source of attraction but are also a source worry for economic and other social activities where burials come with some customary demands. The existence of the religious/traditional and formal/informal sectors are brought into conflict.

Under Ga custom, a young man who is interested in marrying a young lady first informs his parents of his intentions. The parents, especially the mother conducts a search on the woman’s family to ascertain whether she is of good character and also from a good family. When the parents of the man are satisfied, they perform what is known as a ‘knocking’ ceremony at the girl’s father’s house. The ceremony involves the presentation of drinks the essence is to introduce themselves to the girl’s family and express their intentions. At this point they are informed whether the lady is betrothed to another man or not; if all is clear, the man’s family are informed of the traditions of the woman’s family concerning marriage including the bride price. After this ceremony, the man’s family leaves to prepare for the marriage ceremony.

The woman’s family also finds time to investigate the background of the man and his family to ascertain whether the marriage between the two families is feasible. A date for the marriage is set when all goes well among both parties. On the morning of the ceremony, the man himself is not part of the ceremony but an elderly women from his family leads other women in a procession to the woman’s house with the dowry which usually include drinks, cloth, money and other items The entire ceremony is a very humorous one with both families selecting an okyeame (linguist) who communicates information between the families. An important aspect of the ceremony is when the woman’s family assesses the dowry and satisfies themselves that everything had been presented according to specification. When it is found to be acceptable, the woman, who hitherto has been kept hidden in a room is called and introduced to the man’s family. Praises are then showered on her by the visitors and at this moment the father presents her to the leader of the man’s family in a gesture of handing the girl over to her new family. The ceremony ends with refreshment for all gathered and the presentation of souvenirs to the man’s family and other visitors. The man then comes to the house at a later period, usually the same day to take his wife to her new home.

The Municipality has an impressive culture reflected in the festivals, puberty rites etc. that if developed could enhance to tourism subsequently the local economy. Through an inventory of the tourism potential and the cultural sites a cultural development plan integrated into a comprehensive cultural development framework and be developed.

These activities are a source of attraction to both locals and foreigners who throng the Municipality during such occasions

All these socio cultural activities as well as the diversity of the indigenous people have some development implications for the Assembly

1.3.3 Settlement Systems

Classification of Settlements According to Income Levels
The settlement patterns of the Municipality are based on income classes as calculated on rate imposts on the various residential properties which provides guidance to the property rates charged in the various settlements.

Based on the above the Municipality is categorized broadly under three main zones,
First Class,
Second Class ‘A,’
Second Class ‘B’ and
Third Class based on.

Residential First and Second Class ‘A’ make up the High Income Zones whilst the Second Class ‘B’ covers middle income areas low income communities however, also make up the Third Class areas. The table below shows the various settlements found within the classifications.. The Revenue collectors are able to mobilize revenue within the first and second class areas because settlements patterns are well defined there is easy accessibility; houses are numbered, streets are named and trucks are able to access and collect refuse and also provide easy accessibility for emergencies.. However there is a challenge with the third class areas since location is not well planned with poor road network, houses and streets are not numbered and named, making identification of properties difficult, allays have not been paved and trucks are not able to have access to dislodge septic tanks and collect waste.

Table 4: Classification of settlements by income levels

Rating Zoning Area Affected
Residential First Class Part of  Martey Tsuru, ManetEst/Regiman, , Airport Hill Residential Area, New England
Residential Second Class ‘A’  Addogonno,SSNIT-Grade Est,Adzormana,Teshie- Nungua Est. , Martey Tsuru, Borabora Area, Regimanuel Est. Nungua BarrierBaatsonaa, Naa Plajo, Hydrofon,Parakuo Est., Beach front,Ranvico Area, Maritime Academy area, Maritime view Est.
Residential Second Class   ‘B’ Tebibianor, Tsuibeloo, Agblezaa, Teshie Fertilizer, Gonyitey-Nungua Barrier, Buade, Camp ‘2’, Cocobeach,Coldstore area, Penny, Gonnor school area,Aboma, Bush road, Sutsurunor,Okesekor,Demo, First junction, Sango Gonno,Nungua Newtown,Teshie Dar-es-salam,Teshie Manhean.
Residential Third Class Teshie Old Town, Nungua Old Town, Teshie Zongo, Nungua Zongo

The stratification factor of the various income zones uses housing characteristics and environmental conditions. It is realized from the table above that about 41% of localities in the Municipality are inhabited by high income earners while a majority 50% are made up of middle income earners leaving 9% of localities inhabited by low income earners.  High-income zones are characterized by well-defined sector layouts, high taxable property values and good neighbour infrastructure. The rest of the zones follow suit, as the third (four) zone depicts depressed conditions. They are mostly unplanned areas of the municipality with poor or non-existent neighborhood infrastructure and utilities.

The challenge facing the municipality is to enhance opportunities for the middle and low income earners to climb up the social ladder. This is to be done through the enhancement of economic opportunities, as well as sustainable provision of adequate socioeconomic infrastructure in such areas.


  1. Revenue implications
  2. Provision of/and distribution of social and  economic facilities
  3. Sanitation and environmental implications
  4. Spatial planning


Poverty Pockets In the Municipality                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

The poverty profiling of Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality was conducted as part of the Ghana Federation and People’s Dialogue component of the Cities Alliance sponsored Land Services and Citizenship (LSC) programme which seeks to build the capacity of the urban poor to promote inclusive urban development within Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA).

This profiling was done by People’s Dialogue working in alliance with the Ghana Federation in partnership with the Ledzokuku – Krowor Municipal Assembly (LEKMA). The exercised aimed at identifying the informal settlements within LEKMA and ascertaining details about them with respect to issues around land, housing, education, health, livelihoods, governance, and community development priorities as well as the historical backgrounds.

The exercise involved active participation of the Federation, community leaders, community groups .The table at Appendix table 1 shows the details of the profiling exercise.

From the appendix table 1 the following development issues cut across the ten communities were prioritized

Summary of Key Development Issues

  1. Household toilets
  2. Road network
  3. Public water standpoints
  4. Drains
  5. Skip containers
















The Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal Assembly (LEKMA) has been beneficiary of the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) since 2007.

A total of fifty-five (55) Public Basic Schools in the Municipality are on the programme including two (2) schools funded by LEKMA.  These beneficiary schools comprises six Circuits – Ledzokuku North, Ledzokuku South, Ledzokuku Central, Ledzokuku West, Krowor North, and Krowor South.

The total enrolment figure for the beneficiary schools in the Municipality is 13,342, served by 18 caterers.  Implementation of the programme in the Municipality in respect of locally milled rice and maize given to caterers on credit by national secretariat through national food buffer stock.


The Youth Employment Agency was established under the Youth Employment Act 2015 ( Act 887) to empower young people to contribute meaningfully to social economic and sustainable development of the nation. Its objective is to support the youth between the ages of 15- 35 years through skills training and internship modules to transit from a situation of unemployment to that of employment. The report below has activities carried out by the Agency in 2016.


1. Community  Policing Assistants (CPA) 20 14 6
2. Youth in Fire Service (YiFS) 9 7 2
3. Prison Service Assistant (PSA) 9 9
4. Community Health Workers (CHW) 42 7 35
5. E-Health 3 3
6. Coastal Sanitation 47 13 34
7. Community Education Teaching Assistance 33 7 26
8. Greening Ghana 30 11 19
9. Paid internship 14 3 11




LEAP is a social protection cash transfer intervention that aims to safeguard the extremely poor and vulnerable families, which includes the elderly aged 65yrs and above, severely disabled who are unable to work and orphans and vulnerable children from falling into abject poverty. (percentage of people in this category)

LEAP started in the Municipality in 2015. A total number of 741 households were selected through proxy means testing, however only 7 out of the total qualified to benefit from the intervention. Thus, 5 households from Nungua, 2 households from Teshie. The 5 households from Nungua received their first entitlement in November/ December, 2015. In October 2016 the other two from Teshie started benefiting from the LEAP



The National Health Insurance Scheme, Kpeshie District was established by the National Health Insurance Act 2003, (Act 650) but now Act 852 to provide financial access to quality basic health care for the residents of the district and Ghana as a whole. The District office is located at No. 47 Cocoa Street, Teshie-Nungua Estate and is operational in nine major localities, namely; Hedzoleman (Teshie-Nungua), Martey Tsuru – Teshie, North Teshie, Nungua, South Teshie, Teshie, Teshie Military Zone, Teshie-Nungua Estates and Teshie-Wajir Barracks.

The total enrolled onto the Biometric Membership System (BMS) as at December, 2016 was 72,301 of which 25,233 were new registration and 47, 068 being renewals. The total membership enrolled in 2016 represents a 72% increase of 2016 annual target.

The period recorded for both new registration and renewals an informal registration of 25,158, SSNIT contributors of 6,478, SSNIT pensioners of 308, dependants of 27,179, Aged of 3,013, indigents of 3,879, and pregnant women registration of 6,286.







LED is the process by which Local government, local businesses and other actors join forces and resources to enter into new partnership agreements with each other or other stakeholders to create new jobs and stimulate economic activity in Municipalities, towns and villages.

The Assembly in this regard created a platform and environment to engage stakeholders in implementing strategies and programmes.


The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Water and Sanitation Project (GAMA-SWP) is an intervention by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) with sponsorship from the World Bank with the objective of increasing access to improved water and sanitation in low-income areas.

The project aims to aid Landlords of Nungua and Teshie to construct household toilets at half price and also construct institutional toilets for some selected basic schools in the Municipality.

A total of 115 household toilets have been constructed while the institutional toilet project is underway and are at various degrees of completion.

The project, when fully implemented in June 2018, will drastically reduce the incidence of open defecation in the Municipality and also improve on the hygiene situation in beneficiary schools.

Details attached in Appendix





In view of the strategic location of the Municipality in the Greater Accra Region and more still its specific location between the national capital, Accra and Tema, the second largest city in the Greater Accra Region, LEKMA is well placed to attract large investment concerns for its economic development due to the prevailing economic climate in the region.


The Municipality is therefore gradually assuming the role of an emerging commercial centre. Among other factors, this is due to the internal economic opportunities that the Municipality provides as well as rising cost and scarcity of economic land within the large cities thereby shifting concentration to neighbouring areas like LEKMA. Consequently the Municipality is now gradually taking its place as an important economic zone for commerce, manufacturing and finance, third after Accra and Tema. Other sectors such as tourism are yet to be developed to their full potential.


In other to facilitate the economic growth of the Municipality, management of the Assembly appreciates that the process of planning for the general development of the economy must of necessity involve broad guidelines and incentives to drive the private sector to both municipal and nationally desired aspirations. This entails close and transparent partnerships between the public sector and formal and informal private sectors so that problems can be identified and addressed pragmatically to ensure that the path of the entrepreneurs are facilitated and smoothened. Issues to be considered in this regard include quick permitting procedures and infrastructural provision to enhance businesses.


The Municipality has several industrial, banks; commercial, development and merchant establishments and a few foreign exchange bureaux. These financial institutions together with strings of shops, restaurants, large scale industrial establishments and other commercial concerns which make up the formal economy are usually located on the Spintex Road, making it the most important commercial zone in the Municipality. The next commercial zone along the Teshie-Nungua Road, although important is however not up to the status of the Spintex Road in terms of socioeconomic infrastructure.


Apart from formal businesses, the municipality has a very large informal sector which operates with very limited institutional structures to support them. In most cases the Assembly is challenged about appropriate zoning for their operation since they spring up at almost all locations in the municipality thereby causing some conflict with city authorities in some instances. They nevertheless contribute immensely in the growth of the local economy in terms of service provision, industry, and employment creation among others. In this light the Assembly should create a sound environment through adequate provision of organized space for them to thrive by periodic capacity building programmes and assistance on economic opportunities.

  2. Revenue mobilization but inadequate data
  3. Financial challenge for the informal sector
  4. Need to revisit the LED policy of the Assembly again


The Municipality also has three markets namely, Nungua market, Tsuibleo and Lascala markets both in Teshie. Food commodities such as tomato, pepper, okro, garden eggs, onions, cassava, plantain, exotic vegetables (carrot, lettuce, cabbage) etc. are sold at these markets. Most of the traders in these markets buy their foodstuffs from other regions apart from buying from farmers in the municipality. These markets are currently facing infrastructural challenges and would require massive investments to improve the situation.



Poor State of Teshie Market               Poor state of access roads leading to Nungua Market


Teshie and Nungua are important fishing communities in the greater Accra region with Tsienaa and Sangonaa being their traditional names respectively. The fisherfolks engage in artisanal fishing. The gears commonly used are Ali and Poliwatsa as well as purse seine nets. Recently there is the introduction of the monofilament net. This net due to its rubber nature is non-biodegradable and such is banned in the marine industry.

Data on canoes

  Registered canoes Embossed canoes No of fishermen
Nungua 78 78 510
Teshie 135 121 1000


Catch Data for Teshie

2014 2015 2016
1049.90kg 765kg 712kg


The quantity of fish caught is steadily declining. This could be due to the fact that the number of canoes are increasing. This is making the fishing business non-profitable so fisherfolks need to look at other sources of income

Illegal Fishing

The use of explosives, chemicals, light and undersized mesh to fish have reduced reduced considerably .however the use of monofilament net  is on the ascendancy. This has to be stopped.


The sanitation issues at the two landing sites are bad. Nungua is relatively better than Teshie. Teshie by its location is situated at where the lagoon meets the sea. The lagoon comes with all the waste upstream and deposits everything at the beach.

Clean up exercise at the beach


Teshie-Nungua is one of the major fishing communities in the Greater Accra Region. The nature of fishing in the municipality is basically marine fishing. The type of fish that are caught in the Municipality include Herrings (Round and Flat sardines), Bumper, Tuna (Atlantic little tuna, Spigacer, Chuv Mackerel), Burito, Anchovies, Cassava fish, Thread fin, Shad, Tandora, etc.

Fish processing (smoking, salting and drying) in the municipality is mostly done by women. Smoking is one way of processing and preserving fish. After processing the women store the fish as illustrated in figure 4. The fish is wrapped in clean brown paper sheets and again with polyethylene in a waterproof and an airtight manner to prevent the growth of moulds and rodent attack. During the lean season, and when market prices are favorable, the women obtain high market premiums.

Drying is another option to preserve fish. Fishes like anchovies are preserved in this way. Normally the fish is dried on the bare floor which is unwholesome as it collects sand particles about 30% of fish is lost through the processing stage. This is the norm in almost all fishing communities. In this regard, a technological intervention is needed. Solar drying is one way to remedy the situation. Another option is the use of raised pallets. The Municipal Department of Agriculture has introduced the use of solar drying technology, raised pallets and improved chorkor smokers that are more efficient than the traditional method. However, these require investment and space.

attack. During the lean season, and when market prices are favorable, the women obtain high market premiums.

Drying is another option to preserve fish. Fishes like anchovies are preserved in this way. Normally the fish is dried on the bare floor which is unwholesome as it collects sand particles about 30% of fish is lost through the processing stage. This is the norm in almost all fishing communities. In this regard, a technological intervention is needed. Solar drying is one way to remedy the situation. Another option is the use of raised pallets. The Municipal Department of Agriculture has introduced the use of solar drying technology, raised pallets and improved chorkor smokers that are more efficient than the traditional method. However, these require investment and space.


Traditional Method of Smoking Figure            Improved Method of Smoking


Improved Way of Storing Fish Figure        Traditional Way of Drying Fish


In view of the above discussions in the fishing sector, the focus areas for intervention include:


  • Enforcement of fisheries bye- laws on Light fishing, pair trawling, use of chemicals and   explosives at sea, and usage of unsuitable fishing gear
  • Credit or financial assistance in procuring fishing inputs e.g. Fishing nets, out board motors etc.
  • Promotion of aquaculture
  • Reduction in the distribution chain for pre-mix fuel
  • Provision of social security for fisher folks
  • Provision of insurance cover for fisher folks
  • Investment in improved drying facilities



IN view of the above discussion, the focus area of intervention include

  • Educating fisher folks on alternative employment options
  • Continue to educate fisher folks on fisheries by-laws
  • Train fishermen on proper handling of fish to minimize damage at sea
  • Conduct fish processors survey
  • Embark on cleanup exercise at the beach
  • Have regular people clean up the beaches


1.3.5 Food Security

Food Crop Production

The nature of Food Crop Production in the municipality is mostly backyard and small scale farming. The average land area per farmer is about 0.5 acre.  Maize, pepper, onion, tomato, okro, garden eggs and watermelon are mostly the crops cultivated in the municipality.

Farming areas at Teshie are; Teshie Military Camp, Bush Road, Okpoigonno, Obediben, Martey Tsuru, Tebibibiano, Korjor and Demo. At Nungua, the farming area is Nautical College. Most of the farmers are into vegetables and maize cultivation.









Table 1: Statistical Data on Major Crops

Crop Number of Crop Farmers Estimated area of Land under Cultivation (Ha)
Maize 43 24
  1. Local vegetables (Onion, Tomato, Okro)
  2. Aisan vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, Green pepper)
76 50
Total 119 74

Source: 2017 Farmers’ Registration Data (MDA-LEKMA)

Planting for Food and Jobs Campaign Policy.  

The department had commenced with the implementation of the planting for food and job campaign policy. Though land is a challenge, the department is encouraging the citizenry to make use of their backyards since the policy is also promoting backyard gardening. The focus of the policy currently is crop production. Some of the crops covered by the policy within the municipality are maize and vegetables (Tomato, Pepper and Onion). Twenty five (25) acres of maize is currently under production within the municipality.

The Department is also encouraging protected cultivation in residential areas. Cultivation using such technology results in an all year round production with about 3 to 4 times increase in yields as compared to open cultivation. Currently two such technologies exists in the municipality.



Plate1: Onion fields at Airport junction                       Plate 2: Onion fields at Nautical Area


Plate 3: Mixed cropping along the Motorway

Plate 4: Green pepper filed along the Motorway

Plate 5: Protected cultivation at Nungua Ravico


Animal Production

The Municipality is faced with limited arable land for food crop production due to urbanization. Most of the farmers in the municipality are into animal production especially small ruminants and poultry. The types of food animals being reared include sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, and poultry.

Small Ruminants

Small ruminant production constitutes sheep and goat production. It is considered as an integral part of the livelihood of most households in the municipality. Most households depend on these animals as a source of income and protein. The limited land availability coupled with the poor rainfall pattern in the Municipality makes it difficult to obtain pasture for the animals. Consequently, zero grazing technology has been introduced to farmers which involve the adoption of supplementary feeding methods such as the use of hay, peels of plantain and cassava. This technology, when adopted, will reduce the number of times farmers leave their animals unattended to, and will contribute to the reduction of animal theft cases reported over the years to some extent. A total of 321 animals have been stolen over a three year period. Also effort of the Department to improve the breeding stock of farmers is being affected negatively by this menace.  However, these feeding materials are not always available and not obtained in the quantities required.


Plate 6: Sheep production at Nungua


Cattle Production

There are few cattle in the municipality due to limited grazing lands and also the Assembly’s bye- law which does not support the rearing of such animals in the Municipality. Most of the cattle farmers are engaged in fattening the animals for slaughter.

Poultry production

Poultry production has been a major part of the food supply system in the municipality. Most farms range from medium to large scale production.


Plate 7: Poultry production at Teshie Estate


Pig Production

Pig production is another venture which is gradually gaining ground in the municipality. The industry however is beset with a number of challenges which include; improper housing for animals, poor feeding and sanitation practices.

Alternative sources of Livelihood

Grasscutter, rabbit and mushroom production are gradually taking root in the municipality as alternative sources of income. These ventures seem to be feasible in the Municipality because their productions do not require large land size and hence their productions are being promoted by the Municipal Department Agricultural.


Plate 8: Processing of mushroom into kebab                    Plate 9: Grasscutter production


There are three marketing centres in the Municipality. These are Teshie Lascala, Nungua and Tsuibleoo markets. There is all year round supply of food commodities ranging from fruits and vegetables, cereals and grains, starchy roots and plantain, meat, fish, vegetable oils, animal and animal products, etc. Apart from few vegetables which are produced in the municipality, majority of the food commodities are purchased from Agbogbloshie and Nima markets by traders into the Municipality. The traders in these two marketing centres also purchase from middlemen in other regions, thereby prolonging the supply chain, and making food prices go higher.

There is more focus on livestock production, alternative sources of livelihood and home gardening due to the increasing rate at which arable lands are lost. This implies purchases of food crops from other regions to boost municipal production. There are also possibilities of high transaction costs and therefore high prices of food items.

General Extension Services

The municipality currently has nine (9) Agricultural Extension Agents (AEA) and five (5) Subject Matter Specialist (SMS). The AEAs conduct home and farm visits during which improved agricultural technologies are extended to beneficiary farmers. They also carry out on-farm demonstrations and field days. Improved technologies cover subject areas such as correct use of agrochemicals, pest/disease recognition, prevention and control, mushroom production, vegetable production, soil fertility improvement and management techniques, meat hygiene, Animal nutrition, rabbit and grasscutter production, improve housing for animals, pig production and management, soya utilization and improved irrigation technologies.

Veterinary Services

The mandate of the Veterinary unit includes routine activities as campaign on vaccination, prophylactic treatment of animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry birds and pets) and education of farmers on animal health and management practices and disease surveillance.


Plate 10: Anti Rabies campaign vaccination of Dogs.

Key Agriculture Development Issues

Component Development Issues
Agricultural productivity Limited funding for extension servicesLow use of improve technology.

Low use and high cost of improved inputs

Low access to mechanization services

Theft of livestock

Sustainable environment, land and water management. Lack and absence use of agricultural land use policy and urbanization
Improved institutional collaboration for agricultural development Conflicting roles in the promotion of livestock production in relation with the Assembly’s by-Laws



















Internal Audit
MPCU (MPO = Secretary)
Social Sector
Infrastructure Sector
Financial Sector
Environmental Sector
Economic Sector
Education, Youth & Sports Dept.
SW & CD Dept.
District Health Dept.
Works Dept.
Town & Country Planning Dept.
Agric Dept.
Disaster Prevention Dept.
Waste Mgt. Dept.
Revenue Mobilization
Education  Section
Sports Section
SW Section
CD Section
DMOH Section
R. Birth & Death Section
Fire Section
NADMO Section
Youth Section
Basic Education Unit
Library section
Urban Roads Dept.
Finance Dept.
Environ Health
Central Administration Dept.
HR Mgt
Admin, Plan. & Budget Sectors
Non-Formal Education Unit
PRCC (Public Relations Complaint Committee)


The Assembly is made up of two Zonal Councils namely Ledzokuku and Krowor Zonal Councils. Their functions include general administration, revenue mobilization, data collection and development control.




  1. Education
  2. spatial distribution
  3. Accessibility
  4. standards
  5. Challenges of the existing data
  6. Infrastructure

The Municipality has in total 230 Primary Schools with 47 of these schools being public while 183 are privately owned. In the case of the Junior High Schools, out of a total of 179, 38 are public while 141belong to private individuals

There are 31 public Kindergartens, which cater for the needs of 2,116 pupils, and 183 private Kindergartens, which cater for the needs of 8,752 pupils. The Municipality has 3 public SHS with enrolment of 5083 students and 8 private SHS with population of 900 students. There are 1 private Technical Vocational Education Training school with enrolment of 895 and 2 private TVET with enrolment of 260. There are 124 teachers in public Kindergartens and 90.8% of them are trained. There are 411 teachers in private Kindergartens and 5.3% of them are trained. There are 512 teachers in public Primary and 97.5% of them are trained. There are 1,239 teachers in private Primary and 21.1% of them are trained. There are 454 teachers in public JHS and 95.6% of them are trained. There are 960 teachers in private JHS and 32.2% of them are trained. There are 218 teachers in public SHS and 93.1% of them are trained. There are 81 teachers in private SHS and 13.6% of them are trained. There are 50 teachers in public TVET and 86% of them are trained. There are 20 teachers in private TVET and 0% of them are trained. The government is pursuing a vigorous programme to train teachers in early childhood teaching methodology. The sub-program has an in-service training program for teachers to ensure that they have up-to-date knowledge of the curriculum and related teaching and learning materials.

There are 3 public SHSs, which cater for the needs of 5,086 students, and 8 private SHSs, which cater for the needs of 900 students. There are 218 teachers in public SHSs and 98.8% of them are trained. There are 81 teachers in private SHSs and 49.4% of them are trained. The sub-program has an in-service training program for teachers to ensure that they have up-to-date knowledge of the curriculum and related teaching and learning materials.





 Staffing at the Public Schools as at December, 2016

 Level Teaching Staff at Post No. of Trained No. of Untrained  Total
Male Female
KG 4 120 106 18 124
Primary 72 440 499 13 512
JHS 188 266 434 20 454
SHS 135 83 203 15 218
TVET 26 24 43 7 50
Special School
Total 425 933 1,285 73 1,358

Source: Municipal Education Directorate- 2016



Teaching Staff at the Private Schools

Level Staff at Post No. Trained No. Untrained Total
Male Female
KG 17 394 63 348 411
Primary 618 621 261 978 1239
JHS 766 194 309 651 960
SHS 65 16 11 70 81
TVET 20 0 0 20 20
Special School
Total 1,486 1,225 644 1,440 2,711

Source: Municipal Education Directorate – 2016



Kindergarten Education

KG (PUBLIC) 31 2,116 75% 124 106 18
KG (PRIVATE) 183 8,752 5.47% 411 63 348

Source: Municipal Education Directorate- 2016




 Primary Education

PRIMARY (PUBLIC) 47 12,938 7% 512 499 13
PRIMARY (PRIVATE) 183 25,244 27% 1239 261 978

Source: Municipal Education Directorate – 2016






Junior High School Education

JHS (PUBLIC) 38 7,606 12% 454 434 20
JHS (PRIVATE) 141 8,932 13% 960 309 651

Source: Municipal Education Directorate- 2016




Senior High School Education

SHS(PUBLIC) 3 5,086 4% 218 203 15
SHS (PRIVATE) 8 900 13.9% 81 11 70

Source: Municipal Education Directorate- 2016











TVET Education

TVET (PUBLIC) 1 859   50 43 7
TVET (PRIVATE) 2 260   20 0 20

Source: Municipal Education Directorate- 2016






















The Municipality currently has three key types of health facilities namely hospital, health centres/health post and others. These categories are also placed under the broad headings of government and private. At the moment there are a total of 9 health facilities made up of four (4) hospitals, one (1) health centre/post and four (4) other low hierarchy facilities such as clinics etc.

A health centre, policlinic, reproductive and child health clinics are available to provide clinical/ preventive services in the Municipality (ranging from out-patient and in-patient, public health services; reproductive and child health services, nutrition, pharmacy, laboratory and X-Ray). There are also specialist hospitals such as the Family Health, Manna Mission, Inkoom and Lister Hospitals which provide obstetric and gynecological procedures.

A 100 bed ultra-modern hospital has been constructed by the Chinese Government in collaboration with Government of Ghana. Existing public facilities however lack adequate space and facilities for their smooth functioning.


                                                                                                                        LEKMA Hospital                                                                                                Lister Specialist Hospital



 Municipal Health Directorate




Table 16: Ten most frequently reported conditions at OPD, 2015 – 2017, Ledzokuku-Krowor






Table 17: Inpatient attendance based on insured and uninsured clients

NHIS STATUS 2010 2011 2012 2013
INSURED 2114 (66.29%) 3,434(28.78%) 5230(55.23%) 7274(62.18)
UNINSURED 1075 (57.41%) 8,495(71.22%) 4240(44.77%) 4425(37.82)
TOTAL 3,189 11,929 9,470 11699

 Source: Municipal Health Directorate, Lekma




Waste Management has been fairly improved in the Municipality. This is as a result of the monthly National Sanitation Clean-Up Exercises and the inception of the ZoomPak Transfer Station in the Municipality. The existence of the Transfer Station at Fertilizer Area has considerably reduced the turnaround time of refuse trucks thereby increasing the number of trips per truck per day.

Despite strenuous efforts made to rid the Municipality of filth and to create safe and healthy environment, indiscriminate waste disposal and community apathy towards sanitation remains a challenge.

Notable factors accounting for the waste management problem include:

  • Poor conceptualization of sanitation and lack of adequate sanitary facilities


  • Ignorance and irresponsibility of individuals, households and communities
  • Lack of community action and springing up of unauthorized temporary structures
  • Continuously increasing number of squatters
  • Inadequate  budgetary allocation for sanitation due to limited resources



     Insanitary Conditions along beaches                         Drains filled with refuse


The Municipality currently operates a waste management system with the following key elements:

  • Door-to-door service which attracts service fees and prominent in affluent and well layout areas, communal container service common in low income areas.
  • Service providers are paid directly by beneficiaries for door-to-door service through a franchise arrangement by the Assembly while contracting for communal service collection is common in low income areas.
  • All waste collected are sent to semi-controlled landfill sites outside the municipality.

Little recycling of plastics and polyethylene occurs with private recycling companies.

  • Waste management is done jointly by the Municipality and Zoom Lion Company which is a private firm involved in waste management. The company engages youth as part of their waste management module and collaborates with the Assembly in the area of Street Cleansing, Desilting, Refuse Evacuation, Spraying, Cesspit Services, House to house refuse collection.








Housing Conditions and Types

The housing character of the Municipality is varied depending on the various areas. It entails a predominantly densely populated, low income and indigenous zone along the southern or coastal portions such as Old Nungua and Old Teshie. Buildings in such areas are depressed and have poor quality material such as mud, untreated timber and zinc roofing sheets for walling. The housing environment is characterised by haphazard development, inadequate housing infrastructure, poor drainage, poor state of alleys, erosion and high population concentrations. An important housing intervention measure that can be initiated in the short term is the provision of alley pavements to facilitate movements in these low income settlements.


Towards the central and southern portions, one would observe relatively lower density middle income buildings with high level of encroachment on roads in a few areas. These middle income areas also have barely sufficient infrastructure to service them just like their low income counterparts. Another common feature of these areas, especially at the northern sections or periphery of the Municipality, a numbers of uncompleted houses inter-dispersed with pockets of undeveloped lands. Nevertheless the municipality can boast of well-planned affluent neighborhoods developed by estate developers such as Airport Hills, Manet Estates, and Greda Estates which have very high level of infrastructure provision.



 Low income neighborhood in Teshie with rocky alleys      A Middle Income Neighborhood

Road Network and Conditions

The Municipality has two main road corridors; the main Teshie-Nungua Beach Road and the Spintex Road which both link the Municipality to the La Dade Kotopon Municipal Assembly on the west and Tema Metropolitan Assembly on the East. These roads are currently classified as having fair surface conditions and are also not wide enough to accommodate the large volumes of vehicular traffic. Traffic congestion is therefore experienced most hours of the day on these roads. The map below shows the road network for the Municipality.



Figure 3: Road Network for the Municipality (put in the link)

Table 18: Road Conditions

  Surface Condition Length in meters %
1 Asphalt    25,727.39     4.98
2 Surface Dressing   82,685.86   15.99
3 Gravel   18,472.52     3.57
4 Earth 390,114.23   75.46
  Total 517,000   100

Source: Municipal Roads Unit, 2014



The above analysis of the road system indicates that bad roads should be identified and prioritized and a consistent plan developed to improve the roads taking into consideration the complexities of the road network and associated drainage patterns. Special attention should also be given to unmotorable roads in middle income areas where people cannot get access to their homes.


1.3.8 Vulnerability Analysis

The need to empower the physically challenged economically and integrate them into the wider society is very paramount in the achievement of the aspirations of the Assembly. The Social Welfare Department, among other functions seeks to promote the welfare and wellbeing of all the physically challenged persons in the Municipality and integrate them into the wider society for an enhanced human resource development and increased production.

From the 2% allocation from the DACF and funds from other sources, the Assembly has provided financial assistance and direction for the wellbeing of the physically challenged by providing them with funds and equipment to setup small income generating activities.

1.3.9 HIV and AIDS

Care and Support: The health directorate oversees the services provided at the various health facilities, PL support groups and HIV activities in the municipality. Care and support is also done through management of opportunity infections (OIs) and people with the infection are given prophylaxis such as cotrimaxole with other OI tablets.


Voluntary Counselling and Testing: The Municipal Health directorate is engaged in a comprehensive educational, counselling and testing campaign at all health facilities in the Municipality in line with the HIV/ AIDS response initiative. In this regard, a “Know-Your-Status” campaign is vigorously being followed at all Out Patient’s Departments and referrals are made to treatment sites. This is complemented by outreach services to sensitize the people on the need to know their HIV/AIDS status. Currently there are 3 antiretroviral therapy centres at LEKMA Hospital, Manna Mission & Lister Hospital.


Prevention of mother to child transmission: All pregnant women in the Municipality reporting for ante-natal are sensitized, counselled and tested and referred depending upon their status. By the end of 2012, 165(2.3%) out of 6,492 pregnant women tested responded positive for HIV/AIDS. It should also be appreciated that the figure could be larger since it represents only recorded cases. This is a matter of concern which should attract the Assembly and all stakeholders to pull together their resources to address this developmental issue. Health care providers such as Christian Medical Centre, Manna Mission, Lekma Hospital, Lister Hospital, North Clinic, Finger of God Maternity Home and Family Health Hospital are providers of services to prevent mother to child transmission. Advocacy is done mainly through television and radio stations, and visits to churches, mosques and schools.


1.4 Gender

The Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality is a predominantly Ga community and therefore the patrilineal system of inheritance is observed, especially in indigenous areas. This practice greatly affects women decision making and ownership of property, women traditionally do not own land and can neither use it as collateral to access credit facilities. Relative to men, women generally have limited access to formal credit and those that have been targeted towards women have been gender biased in content.


Gender differences in enrollment for formal education have narrowed slightly over the years at the lower levels due to gender sensitive policies implemented by successive governments but the problem persist particularly at the higher levels.  Investment in male education is often perceived to be more important due to limited funds. The continuing gender imbalance in access to education limits women’s access to employment and productivity.


1.4.1 Environment, Climate Change and Green Economy

The drainage catchment area of the municipality is found within the Songo-Mokwe area which covers about 50 km2, draining the area of Teshie to the ridgeline with the Sakumo II catchment. Two main streams drain the area flowing into the Mokwe and Songo Lagoons. Much of this catchment is undergoing illegal residential development leading to extensive flooding during the rainy season.


In recent time there has been unauthorized development along water ways due to ineffective development control mechanisms thereby causing severe floods in such areas. This calls for proactive measures at enforcement to ensure sanity in the system.


Most channels are also heavily silted and choked with refuse thereby hampering the smooth flow of storm water. A well-organized public health and environmental enhancement programme for seasonally clearing drains is required to ensure they remain free flowing to help address the problems of flooding.



 Poor State of Storm Drain near Spintex Road          Chocked Community Drain

Areas with perennial flooding problems includes Teshie/Nungua Estates, Southern Teshie, central Nungua among others. To solve the perennial flooding problems in the municipality, the current drainage design standards should be reviewed to ensure all drainage systems have adequate capacity to contain the volumes of water. This should be done through a detailed assessment of the existing drainage system which should form the basis for a comprehensive drainage plan detailing out clearly cost components and role casting for funding sources to alleviate the drainage problems of the municipality.


1.4.2 Population

The population of the Municipality is 227,932. The table 1 shows the population distribution of five (5) year age group in the Municipality for 2010 Population and Housing Census.

Table 19: Population Distribution

Age in 5 years group SEX % MALE SEX %FEMALE TOTAL
0-4 yr. 13645 12.5 13061 11.0 26706
5-9 yr. 11201 10.3 11192 9.4 22393
10-14 yr. 10595 9.7 11816 10.0 22411
15-19 yr. 10299 9.4 11551 9.7 21850
20-24 yr. 11288 10.3 12688 10.7 23976
25-29 yr. 11304 10.4 13114 11.0 24418
30-34 yr. 10141 0.1 10904 9.2 21045
35-39 yr. 8066 7.4 8693 7.3 16759
40-44 yr. 6387 5.8 6761 5.7 13148
45-49 yr. 4854 4.4 5327 4.5 10181
50-54 yr. 3837 3.5 4347 3.7 8184
55-59 yr. 2612 2.4 2702 2.3 5314
60-64 yr. 1846 1.7 2057 1.7 3903
65-69 yr. 1095 1.0 1386 1.2 2481
70-74 yr. 851 0.8 1203 1.0 2054
75-79 yr. 502 0.5 712 0.6 1214
80-84 yr. 310 0.3 578 0.5 888
85-89 yr. 205 0.2 376 0.3 581
90-94 yr. 99 0.1 176 0.1 275
          95+ yr. 48 0.1 103 0.1 151
Total 109,185 48 118,747 52 227,932


It will be realized from the above table that approximately 52% of the population are females and the rest 48% males. This gives a sex ratio of 1:1.8 males to females. The dominance of females over males is a reflection of the nationwide trend where the estimated ratio is 1:1.03. The need to target women in any development programme in the Municipality can therefore not be overemphasized.

Age-Sex Structure

The age structure and the sex composition of the district is similar to the national structure. It shows a youthful population that is characteristic of a developing country such as Ghana. As shown in Fig 2.1, the age-sex structure is broad based, comprising of concentration of children at younger ages. The percentage in higher ages reduces gradually in subsequent age groups with a small number of elderly and more females than males at advanced ages. However, the age range 15-19 for the male population is higher than the female and this might be due to maternal mortality.



Figure 4: Population Pyramid




The census figures for the 2010 population and housing census revealed the  Gas constitute  the dominant enthnic group in the Municipality follwed by the Ewe . Other enthnic groups that can Be found in the Municipality include Akans, Kasena, Grusi,Nkonya,Busanga and many other tribes.

 Religious Characteristics.

An overwhelming majority of 92% of the people in the Municipality are Pentecostal/charismatic while only 7% and 3.3% are Moslems and traditionalists respectively.  The predominance of Christianity in the area is due to the strong presence of orthodox denominations such as the Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists and Anglicans as well as Pentecostal Churches. These religious institutions therefore cannot be left out in resource and community mobilization for development.



1.4.3 Migration


The analysis from the 2010 Population and Housing Census also shows that 35.88% of the inhabitants of the Municipality were migrants. In other words they were born outside the Municipality but have now settled there for various reasons while the remaining 64% responded that they were born in the Municipality.  The large numbers of migrants in the area as well as the heterogeneous character exhibited by the Municipality should inform pragmatic approaches for development.


1.4.4 Water security

The source of water to the Municipality is the Kpone Water works which has its catchments area in the Volta River Basin. There is however marked variations with respect to income classes in the access to water. First class residential areas such as the Greda Estates, Manet Gardens etc. are connected to the water supply network and in most cases receive water most days of the week and pay official rates. In recent times it is common to have polytanks in such areas to supplement shortage that may occur. However large sections of the middle and low income earners in the Municipality have very poor or irregular supply of water although they are connected to the network. In such areas residents who can afford polytanks are compelled to purchase them as a matter of necessity to supplement their water supplies. Those who cannot afford the polytanks purchase water from vendors at high prices. The most critical water problem in the Municipality however relates to inability of supply of water to meet demand.

In an attempt to improve the water situation in the municipality, the government of Ghana in collaboration with Befesa Developments Ghana Limited is constructing the Nungua Desalination Plant. The Plant would use a process called reverse osmosis, which involves the removal of salts and other minerals from sea water as it moves through layers of extremely thin membranes under high pressure. The desalinated water is then taken through a post-treatment phase (demineralization) in order to make it potable and ready to be delivered to Ghana Water Company Limited distribution network.











  • Low level of internally generated revenue
  • Poor state of market facilities
  • Poor state / inadequate educational
  • Poor enrolment
  • Inadequate health infrastructure and services
  • Inadequate sanitary situation
  • Inadequate land for social services
  • Poor environmental conditions in coastal areas
  • Inadequate number of trees
  • Encroachment on water ways
  • Poor state of roads and drains
  • High incidence of traffic on major road corridors

































Table 1

Klosai  Private water taps-4(2 broken), Private shared water taps-59( 2 broken)Households with private toilets-14(3 broken), Private shared toilets-40, Schools- Nursery school 4 ,Primary and JHS 4, Roads (internal – 4, external – 8, paved street – Nil

Churches-3, Mosque-1, Shrines-1, Private water points –Nil


Household Toilets, 2. Paved Streets, 3.Extension Water Pipe .4. Micro-Credit 5. Community Center, 6. Clinic.
FASHI  Schools- 8, Nursery- 2, Primary and JHS 4 each, Senior High School)-NilRoads internal- Nil, External- 2, Paved-Nil, Public toilets- 5, Non-fun points 4, Non –functioning Water point-3

Street lights- 6ctioning toilets -1, Water,


Construction of Drains 2.  Household Toilets, 3.Micro-Credit, 4. Streetlights, 5. Waste Management,6. Internal access road


Nungua Zongo  Internal roads-3, External roads-2, Street with lights- 2,  provision of household toilets2. Access Roads

3. Police Post

4. Community Center

5.Clinic and

6. Micro-Credit


Nungua Tafo  Private water taps-3(2 broken), Private shared water taps-13(3 broken), Public water taps-2( 1broken), Households with private toilets-6, Public toilets-Drinking bars-4, External roads-2, Internal roads-3, Churches-3, Shrines-4, Market-Nil

Police Station –Nil, School- Nil, Street with lights- Nil


Provision of household toilets, 2. Paved streets, 3. Community center4. Police post, and Micro-Credit
Manaheekpo  Private water taps-10(2 broken), Private shared water taps-4, Households with private toilets-14Nursery school-1, Primary-Nill,JHS-1, Drinking bars-3,Mosques – 2,Churches –18, Shrines-2

Social Spaces 19, Spots-15, Market-Nil, Police Station -Nil ,Internal Roads-2

External Roads-2, Street with lights- Nil


Provision of household toilets, 2. Police station, 3. Streetlight, 4. School and5.Micro-Credit


Akpee Shika  Private water taps-8(6 broken), Private shared water taps-15(1 broken), Public water taps-3(All broken), Households with private toilets-2, Private shared toilets-7(1 broken), Public toilet-Nil, School-1, Chuch-1, Shrine-1, Internal roads-0, External roads-4, Social spaces – 5, Street with lights-0  Provision of household toilets,, 2. Paved streets, 3. Provision of clinic, 4.Community centre5. and Micro-Credit


Negba [Koosekoose]  Schools- , Nursery-5, Primary and, JHS -6, Senior High School)-1, Roads (internal-NIL external-Yes,) – , Private Shared toilets- 3, Private water taps-4, Non-functioning water taps -4 Hospital –Nil, Clinic -1, Chip compound -1, Street lights- 40 Provision of household toilet facilities, 2. Provision of skip containers/ waste bins, 3. Public stand pipes, 4. Drainage, 5. Internal roads and, 6. Micro-Credit
Yeiaman  Private water taps-20(19), Public water taps-1, Households with private toilets-15Waste bins-2, Schools-2, Clinics-0, Paved streets-5, Streetlight-1, External roads-3

Internal roads-2, Shrines-11, Churches-6


Household toilets, 2. Clinic, 3. internal roads, 4. Public water points and, 5. Micro-Credit 
Akror West  Schools- 25(Nursery, Primary, JHS and Senior High School/Technical)Roads (internal, external, and paved)- 7, Public toilets- 4, Shared taps- 20, game centers- 10

Street lights- 5


1 Public Water Points, 2.Household Toilets, 3. Skip Containers and, 4. Micro-Credit. 
Akror East Schools- 6Roads (internal, external, and paved) – 3

Public toilets – 2

Shared taps   – 40

1. Public water2. Household toilets

3. Drains

4. Micro-Credit

5. Security light




















Table 2

1. St Peters Anglican 1 JHS Construction of 2 No. 6 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
2. Teshie Presby KG, Primary & JHS Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
3. Northern Cluster KG  Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
4. Northern Cluster Teshie Methodist Primary
5. Northern Cluster Teshie-Nungua Estate Basic
6. Northern Cluster Teshie LEKMA 2 JHS
7. Northern Cluster Teshie LEKMA 2 Primary Rehabilitation of an existing 12 seater toilet facility, provision of bin-bay and compost bins
8. Northern Cluster Teshie LEKMA 4 Primary Rehabilitation of an existing 12 seater toilet faciliity
9. Northern Cluster Teshie LEKMA 10 & 12 Primary Rehabilitation of an existing 8 seater toilet facility, provision of bin-bay and compost bins
10. Northern Cluster LEKMA 11 JHS
11. Northern Cluster  LEKMA 5 JHS Rehabilitation of an existing 8 seater toilet facility, provision of bin-bay and compost bins
12. Northern Cluster  LEKMA 8 Primary
13. Nungua Methodist 1 Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
14. Nungua Methodist 2
15. Teshie Aboma Basic Construction of 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
16. Teshie Camp 2 Primary School Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
17. Dar-el-Salaam Islamic Basic Construction of 2 No. 6 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
18. Nungua Presby A & B JHS Construction of 1 No. 6 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
19. Nungua Presby Primary A & B Construction of 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
20. Nungua LEKMA 5 & 6 Primary Construction of 2 No. 8 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
21. Nungua LEKMA 3 & 4 Primary
22. Teshie Anglican JHS Construction of 2 No. 8 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
23. Teshie Anglican Primary A & B Construction of 2 No. 8 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
24. Dar-el-Salaam A, B & C JHS Construction of 2 No. 8 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
25. Nungua SDA JHS A & B  Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
26. Nungua SDA Primary A
27. Nungua SDA Primary B
28. St. Augustine Anglican Basic Construction of 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
29. Martey Tsuru Basic School Construction of 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
30. Nungua LEKMA Central KG Construction of 2 No. 4 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
31. Nungua LEKMA Presby KG
32. Quaye Nungua Basic Construction of 1 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
33. Teshie Jordan Methodist Basic Construction of 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
34. Nungua LEKMA 1 & 2 Primary & Nungua LEKMA 2 JHS Construction of 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
35. Nungua LEKMA 7 Primary & 4 JHS Construction of 2 No. 6seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins
36. Southern Cluster SchoolsSC_ Teshie Camp 2 Primary

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 3 JHS

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 4 JHS

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 5 Primary

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 1 JHS

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 1 Primary

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 8 JHS

SC_ Teshie LEKMA 9 & 11 Primary


Rehabilitation of an existing 2 No. 10 seater toilet facility with Biogas Treatment System, provision of bin-bay and compost bins
38. Rehabilitation of an existing 2 No. 12 seater toilet facility with Biogas Treatment System, provision of bin-bay and compost bins
40.  Construction of 1 No. 4 seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins


43. Teshie Krobor A & B Construction of 2 No. 6seater toilet facility, water supply, provision of bin-bay & compost bins